References for calorie density are listed at the bottom of this page

1) "The Pritikin Principle: The Calorie Density Solution" June 1, 2000; Robert Pritikin

2)  "The Ultimate Volumetrics Diet: Smart, Simple, Science-Based Strategies for Losing Weight and Keeping It Off"  Barbara Rolls and Mindy Hermann (Apr 10, 2012)

3)  "The Volumetrics Eating Plan: Techniques and Recipes for Feeling Full on Fewer Calories by PhD Rolls Barbara (May 8, 2007)"

4) "The Volumetrics Weight-Control Plan" Barbara, PhD Rolls and Robert A. Barnett (Mar 1, 2005)

5) "Volumetrics Diet: How I Lost 70 Ibs in 140 Days Using the Amazing Volumetrics Diet"  Victoria Gardner (Jun 6, 2014)

6) "A Biometric Study of Human Basal Metabolism"Harris J, Benedict F (1918); PNAS 4 (12): 370–3

7) "The Functional Significance of Individual Variation in Basal Metabolic Rate"; Speakman et al (2004); Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 77 (6): 900–915. doi:10.1086/427059. PMID 15674765.

8) "Human anatomy & physiology." (8th ed. ed.). Marieb, E., & Marieb, E. (2010); San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.

9)  "Essentials of psychology"; Douglas Bernstein et al

10)  "Energy-balance studies reveal associations between gut microbes, caloric load, and nutrient absorption in humans"  Reiner Jumpertz et al;

Am J Clin Nutr July 2011 vol. 94 no. 1 58-65 

11) "A new respiration calorimeter and experiments on the conservation of energy in the human body." I. Phys Rev Ser I 1899;9; Atwater WO, Rosa EB

12)  "Subjective satiety and other experiences of a Paleolithic diet compared to a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes." Jönsson et al;  Nutr J. 2013 Jul 29;12:105. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-105

13)  "Weighing the Evidence of Common Beliefs in Obesity Research; Casazza  et al; Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014 Jun 20:0.

14) "Dietary energy density is associated with obesity and other biomarkers of chronic disease in US adults." Vernarelli J et al; Eur J Nutr. 2014 Mar 25.

15) "Variations in Cereal Volume Affect the Amount Selected and Eaten for Breakfast."; Rolls BJ et al; J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Mar 19. pii: S2212-2672(14)00104-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2014.01.014.

16)  "Methods for calculating dietary energy density in a nationally representative sample." Vernarelli JA et al; Procedia Food Sci. 2013;2:68-74.

17) U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 7th ed. Washington DC: U. S. Government Printing Office; 2010

18)  "Dietary energy density is associated with energy intake and weight status in US adults."; Ledikwe JH, Blanck HM, Kettel Khan L, et al; Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:1362–1368.

19) "Energy density of diets reported by American adults: association with food group intake, nutrient intake, and body weight." Int J Obes (Lond) 2005;29:950–956; Kant AK, Graubard BI.

20) "Energy density, energy intake and weight status in a large free-living sample of Chinese adults: exploring the underlying roles of fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber and water intakes." Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55:349–359;

Stookey JD

21)  "Dietary energy density is associated with overweight status among 5 ethnic groups in the multiethnic cohort study."  J Nutr. 2006;136:2243–2248; Howarth NC, Murphy SP, Wilkens LR, Hankin JH, Kolonel LN.

22)  "Ghrelin and peptide YY increase with weight loss during a 12-month intervention to reduce dietary energy density in obese women." Hill BR, Rolls BJ, Roe LS, De Souza MJ, Williams NI.Peptides. 2013 Nov;49:138-44. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2013.09.009. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

23)  "Assessment of satiety depends on the energy density and portion size of the test meal."; Williams RA, Roe LS, Rolls BJ.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Feb;22(2):318-24. doi: 10.1002/oby.20589. Epub 2013 Sep 23.

24)  "Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density. Effects on daily energy intake." Williams RA, Roe LS, Rolls BJ.Appetite. 2013 Jul;66:75-83. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2013.03.004. Epub 2013 Mar 19.

25) "Changes in Diet and Lifestyle and Long-Term Weight Gain in Women and Men" Dariush Mozaffarian, M.D., Dr.P.H., Tao Hao, M.P.H., Eric B. Rimm, Sc.D., Walter C. Willett, M.D., Dr.P.H., and Frank B. Hu, M.D., Ph.D.N Engl J Med 2011; 364:2392-2404June 23, 2011DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1014296

26) "Medicare's search for effective obesity treatments: diets are not the answer.";  Am Psychol. 2007 Apr;62(3):220-33. Mann T1, Tomiyama AJ, Westling E, Lew AM, Samuels B, Chatman J.

27) "Gain weight by 'going diet?' Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings" Neuroscience 2010Qing Yang

28) "Weight Science: Evaluating the Evidence for a Paradigm Shift" Linda Bacon and Lucy Aphramor;

Nutrition Journal 2011, 10:69

29) "Ornish, Pritikin get Medicare okay for cardiac rehab."' Harv Heart Lett. 2010 Dec;21(4):7.

30) "Ornish and Pritikin programs approved by CMS";  Explore (NY). 2010 Nov-Dec;6(6):346-8. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2010.08.007..Horrigan BJ.

31) "Effect of short-term Pritikin diet therapy on the metabolic syndrome"; J Cardiometab Syndr. 2006 Fall;1(5):308-12; Sullivan S1, Samuel S.

32) "The natural cure of coronary heart disease." Nutr Health. 2003;17(1):55-60.; Withnell A.

33) "Nathan Pritikin's heart.";  N Engl J Med. 1985 Jul 4;313(1):52.; Hubbard JD, Inkeles S, Barnard RJ.

34)  "Dietary energy density in the treatment of obesity: a year-long trial comparing 2 weight-loss diets." Ello-Martin JA, Roe LS, Ledikwe JH, Beach AM, Rolls BJ.Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1465-77.

35) "The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management."  Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1 Suppl):236S-241S..Ello-Martin JA1, Ledikwe JH, Rolls BJ.

36) "What can intervention studies tell us about the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and weight management?"; Nutr Rev. 2004 Jan;62(1):1-17.  Rolls BJ1, Ello-Martin JA, Tohill BC.

37)  "Action on obesity: report of a mayo clinic national summit"; Mayo Clin Proc. 2005 Apr;80(4):527-32.; .Smith AM1, Lopez-Jimenez F, McMahon MM, Thomas RJ, Wellik MA, Jensen MD, Hensrud DD.

38) "Tackling obesity in a 15-minute office visit. Physicians can start patients on an effective weight-loss program, despite time constraints."; Postgrad Med. 2004 Jan;115(1):59-61; Hensrud DD.

39) "Relation of low cardiorespiratory fitness to the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men"  Am J Cardiol. 2002 Oct 1;90(7):795-7.; Kullo IJ1, Hensrud DD, Allison TG.

40) "Influencing and modifying children's energy intake: the role of portion size and energy density"; Proc Nutr Soc. 2014 Jun 2:1-10. ;Pourshahidi LK1, Kerr MA1, McCaffrey TA2, Livingstone MB1.

41) "Independent, additive effects of five dietary variables on Ad Libitum energy intake in a residential study

Obesity (Silver Spring)". 2014 May 26. doi: 10.1002/oby.20798.; Urban LE1, McCrory MA, Rasmussen H, Greenberg AS, Fuss PJ, Saltzman E, Roberts SB.

42) "Reducing energy intake and energy density for a sustainable diet: a study based on self-selected diets in French adults"; Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Apr 2;99(6):1460-1469.; Masset G, Vieux F, Verger EO, Soler LG, Touazi D, Darmon N.

43) "Effect of experimental alterations in excess weight on aerobic capacity and distance running performance"; Med Sci Sports. 1978 Fall;10(3):194-9.; Cureton KJ, Sparling PB, Evans BW, Johnson SM, Kong UD, Purvis JW.

44) "Effect of two different weight-loss rates on body composition and strength and power-related performance in elite athletes"; Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011 Apr;21(2):97-104.; Garthe I1, Raastad T, Refsnes PE, Koivisto A, Sundgot-Borgen J.

45) "A reliable, valid questionnaire indicates that preference for dietary fat declines when following a reduced-fat diet." Ledikwe JH, Ello-Martin J, Pelkman CL, Birch LL, Mannino ML, Rolls BJ.Appetite. 2007 Jul;49(1):74-83. Epub 2006 Dec 23.

46)  "Reductions in dietary energy density are associated with weight loss in overweight and obese participants in the PREMIER trial"  Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 May;85(5):1212-21..Ledikwe JH1, Rolls BJ, Smiciklas-Wright H, Mitchell DC, Ard JD, Champagne C, Karanja N, Lin PH, Stevens VJ, Appel LJ.

47) "Provision of foods differing in energy density affects long-term weight loss."; Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Beach AM, Kris-Etherton PM. Obes Res 2005;13:1052–60.

48) "Weight maintenance 2 years after participation in a weight loss program promoting low-energy density foods."; Greene LF, Malpede CZ, Henson CS, Hubbert KA, Heimburger DC, Ard JD.  Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006;14:1795–801.

49) "The Body-Mass Index of Twins Who Have Been Reared Apart"; Albert J. Stunkard, M.D., Jennifer R. Harris, Ph.D., Nancy L. Pedersen, Ph.D., and Gerald E. McClearn, Ph.D.N Engl J Med 1990; 322:1483-1487May 24, 1990DOI: 10.1056/NEJM19900524322

50) "Long-term maintenance of weight loss." Am J Clin Nutr 1998 67: 946; W J McCarthy

51) "Leptin production and action: relevance to energy balance in humans." Am J Clin Nutr 1998 67: 355-6; P J Havel

52) "Leptin and body composition of Nigerians, Jamaicans, and US blacks." Am J Clin Nutr 1998 67: 391-6; A H Luke et al

53) "Energy density of foods affects energy intake in normal-weight women." Am J Clin Nutr 1998 67: 412-20; E A Bell; B Rolls

54) "Diet composition and energy balance in humans." Am J Clin Nutr 1998 67: 551S-555S;

Hirsch, L C Hudgins, R L Leibel, and M Rosenbaum

55) "Dietary Fructose Reduces Circulating Insulin and Leptin, Attenuates Postprandial Suppression of Ghrelin, and Increases Triglycerides in Women" Volume 89 Issue 6 - June 1, 2004; Karen L. Teff, Sharon S. Elliott et al

​56) "Effects of fructose vs glucose on regional cerebral blood flow in brain regions involved with appetite and reward pathways." JAMA. 2013 Jan 2;309(1):63-70.

57) "Pathways to obesity."; Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002 Sep;26 Suppl 2:S12-7. Jéquier E.

58) "Functional foods to promote weight loss and satiety." Rebello C1, Greenway FL, Dhurandhar NV. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Aug 23.

59) "Inclusion of red meat in healthful dietary patterns." McNeill SH. Meat Sci. 2014 Nov;98(3):452-60. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.06.028. Epub 2014 Jun 28.

60) "Milk protein fractions moderately extend the duration of satiety compared with carbohydrates independently of their digestive kinetics in overweight subjects." Marsset-Baglieri A1; Br J Nutr. 2014 Aug;112(4):557-64. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514001470. Epub 2014 Jun 26.

61) "Protein, weight management, and satiety." Paddon-Jones D1, Westman E, Mattes RD, Wolfe RR, Astrup A, Westerterp-Plantenga M.; Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1558S-1561S.

62) "A satiety index of common foods."; Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995 Sep;49(9):675-90.; Holt SH1 et al

63) "Weight gain as a consequence of living a modern lifestyle: a discussion of barriers to effective weight control and how to overcome them."; J Chiropr Humanit. 2013 Oct 22;20(1):27-35. doi: 10.1016/j.echu.2013.08.001. eCollection 2013.; Seaman DR.

64) Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women." Appetite. 2014 Oct;81:295-304. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2014.06.101. Epub 2014 Jun 30.; Montelius C1, Erlandsson D1, Vitija E1, Stenblom EL1, Egecioglu E1, Erlanson-Albertsson C2.

65) "Appetite control and biomarkers of satiety with vegetarian (soy) and meat-based high-protein diets for weight loss in obese men: a randomized crossover trial."

Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jun 18;100(2):548-558. [Epub ahead of print]; Neacsu M, Fyfe C, Horgan G, Johnstone AM.

66) "Effect of a test meal on meal responses of satiation hormones and their association to insulin resistance in obese adolescents."; Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Sep;22(9):2047-52. doi: 10.1002/oby.20805. Epub 2014 Jun 13.; Beglinger S1, Meyer-Gerspach AC, Graf S, Zumsteg U, Drewe J, Beglinger C, Gutzwiller JP.

67)"Comparative effects of whey and casein proteins on satiety in overweight and obese individuals: a randomized controlled trial." Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 May 7. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.84. [Epub ahead of print]; Pal S, Radavelli-Bagatini S, Hagger M, Ellis V.

68) "Slower eating speed lowers energy intake in normal-weight but not overweight/obese subjects."; J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Mar;114(3):393-402. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.11.002. Epub 2013 Dec 30.; Shah M, Copeland J, Dart L, Adams-Huet B, James A, Rhea D.

69)  "Sensory-specific satiety is affected more by volume than by energy content of a liquid food," Phys Behav 2003; 78(4): 593-600; Bell, E.A., et al.,

70)  "Sensory-specific satiety: comparison of taste and texture effects," Appetite 1998; 31(2): 141-157; Guinard, J-X, and Brun, P.,

71) "Effect of one week of fiber supplementation on hunger and satiety ratings and energy intake,"; Pasman, W.J., et al., Appetite 29(1): 77-87

72) "The effects of functional fiber on postprandial glycemia, energy intake, satiety, palatability and gastrointestinal wellbeing: a randomized crossover trial."; Nutr J. 2014 Jul 28;13:76. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-76.; Yuan JY, Smeele RJ, Harington KD, van Loon FM, Wanders AJ, Venn BJ1.

73) "Bran fibers and satiety in women who do not exhibit restrained eating."; Appetite. 2014 Sep;80:257-63. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2014.05.025. Epub 2014 May 27.' Korczak R1, Lindeman K1, Thomas W2, Slavin JL3.

74) "Popcorn is more satiating than potato chips in normal-weight adults."

Nutr J. 2012 Sep 14;11:71. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-71.; Nguyen V1, Cooper L, Lowndes J, Melanson K, Angelopoulos TJ, Rippe JM, Reimers K.

75) "Understanding variety: tasting different foods delays satiation."

Physiol Behav. 2006 Feb 28;87(2):263-71. Epub 2006 Jan 6.; Hetherington MM1, Foster R, Newman T, Anderson AS, Norton G.

76) The nutrition data site;

77)  "The effects of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and a low-fat diet on mood, hunger, and other self-reported symptoms."; Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Jan;15(1):182-7.T; McClernon FJ1, Yancy WS Jr, Eberstein JA, Atkins RC, Westman EC.

78) "Perceived Hunger Is Lower and Weight Loss Is Greater in Overweight Premenopausal Women Consuming a Low-Carbohydrate/High-Protein vs High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet"; Journal of the American Dietetic AssociationVolume 105, Issue 9, Pages 1433–1437, September 2005Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson, et al

79) "Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women"; Nutr Metab (Lond). 2004; 1: 13.Published online Nov 8, 2004. doi:  10.1186/1743-7075-1-13PMCID: PMC538279; JS Volek,1 MJ Sharman

80) "A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity."

Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, Chicano KL, Daily DA, McGrory J, Williams T, Williams M, Gracely EJ, Stern L.; N Engl J Med.2003;348:2074–2081. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa022637.
81) "A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women."; Brehm BJ, Seeley RJ, Daniels SR, D'Alessio DA. ; J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:1617–1623. doi: 10.1210/jc.2002-021480. 
82) "
A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial."; Yancy WS, Jr, Olsen MK, Guyton JR, Bakst RP, Westman EC; Ann Intern Med.2004;140:769–777. 
83) "
A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity."; Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, McGuckin BG, Brill C, Mohammed BS, Szapary PO, Rader DJ, Edman JS, Klein S; N Engl J Med. 2003;348:2082–2090. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa022207. 

84) "Thermodynamics and metabolic advantage of weight loss diets."; Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2003 Sep;1(3):209-19. doi: 10.1089/154041903322716688.; Feinman RD, Fine EJ.

85) "Comparison of a low-fat diet to a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss, body composition, and risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in free-living, overweight men and women."; Meckling KA, O'Sullivan C, Saari D.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:2717–2723

86) "Efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diets: a systematic review." JAMA. 2003 Apr 9;289(14):1837-50.Bravata DM1, Sanders L, et al

87) "Intracerebroventricular infusions of 3-OHB and insulin in a rat model of dietary obesity."; Arase K, Fisler JS, Shargill NS, York DA, Bray GA.  Am J Physiol. 1988;255:R974–981. 

88) "Blood glucose patterns and appetite in time-blinded humans: carbohydrate versus fat."; Melanson KJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Saris WH, Smith FJ, Campfield LA. ; Am J Physiol. 1999;277:R337–345.

89) "Effect of body composition and other parameters in obese young men of carbohydrate level of reduction diet."; Young CM, Scanlan SS, Im HS, Lutwak L. ;  Am J Clin Nutr. 1971;24:290–296.

90) "Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum" 1,2,3Alexandra M Johnstone, Graham W Horgan, Sandra D Murison,David M Bremner, and Gerald E Lobley; Am J Clin Nutr January 2008 vol. 87 no. 1 44-55

91) "Associations among 25-year trends in diet, cholesterol and BMI from 140,000 observations in men and women in Northern Sweden"; Nutr J. 2012; 11: 40.Published online Jun 11, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1475-2891-11-40PMCID: PMC3489616; Ingegerd Johansson,et al

92) "Low-Carb Diets Can Cause Bad Breath".; Mann, Denise (7 April 2005).  Retrieved 19 December 2010.

93) "The science behind weight loss diets--a brief review."; Aust Fam Physician. 2006 Aug;35(8):580-2.; Clifton P.

​94)"A descriptive study of individuals successful at long-term maintenance of substantial weight loss."; Klem ML, Wing RR, McGuire MT, Seagle HM & Hill JO (1997). ; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66, 239-246.

95)  "Persons successful at long-term weight loss and maintenance continue to consume a low calorie, low fat diet."; Shick SM, Wing RR, Klem ML, McGuire MT, Hill JO & Seagle HM (1998). ; Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 98, 408-413.

96) "Long-term maintenance of weight loss: Do people who lose weight through various weight loss methods use different behaviors to maintain their weight?"; McGuire MT, Wing RR, Klem ML, Seagle HM & Hill JO (1998).;  International Journal of Obesity, 22, 572-577.

97)  "What predicts weight regain among a group of successful weight losers?"; McGuire MT, Wing RR, Klem ML, Lang W & Hill JO. (1999).;  Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 67, 177-185.

98) "Three-year weight change in successful weight losers who lost weight on a low-carbohydrate diet."; Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Oct;15(10):2470-7.; Phelan S1, Wyatt H, Nassery S, Dibello J, Fava JL, Hill JO, Wing RR.

99) "Randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss programmes in the UK: initial findings from the BBC "diet trials"."Truby H, Baic S, deLooy A, Fox KR, Livingstone MB, Logan CM, Macdonald IA, Morgan LM, Taylor MA, Millward DJ.BMJ. 2006 Jun 3;332(7553):1309-14. Epub 2006 May 23. Erratum in: BMJ. 2006 Jun 17;332(7555):1418.

100) "Commercial weight loss diets meet nutrient requirements in free living adults over 8 weeks: a randomised controlled weight loss trial." Nutr J. 2008 Sep 2;7:25. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-7-25.; Truby H1, Hiscutt R, Herriot AM, Stanley M, Delooy A, Fox KR, Baic S, Robson PJ, Macdonald I, Taylor MA, Ware R, Logan C, Livingstone M.

101) "Meal replacements in the treatment of adolescent obesity: a randomized controlled trial."; Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Jun;19(6):1193-9. doi: 10.1038/oby.2010.288. Epub 2010 Dec 9.; Berkowitz RI1, Wadden TA, Gehrman CA, Bishop-Gilyard CT, Moore RH, Womble LG, Cronquist JL, Trumpikas NL, Levitt Katz LE, Xanthopoulos MS.

102) "Assessment of muscle mass and its association with protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population: relevance in chronic kidney disease."

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):619-25. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.01.; Teo BW1, Toh QC, Chan XW, Xu H, Li JL, Lee EJ.

103) "Protein supplementation with aging."; Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Jan;18(1):24-31. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000124.; Bauer JM1, Diekmann R.

104) "A review of the effects of nuts on appetite, food intake, metabolism, and bodyweight."; Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jun 11;100(Supplement 1):412S-422S; Tan SY1, Dhillon J1, Mattes RD1.

105) "Long-term associations of nut consumption with body weight and obesity."; Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jun 4;100(Supplement 1):408S; Jackson CL1, Hu FB1.

106) "Greater Frequency of Nut Consumption is Associated with Lower Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease."; Prev Med. 2014 Dec 19. pii: S0091-7435(14)00496-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.12.014. Heffron SP1, Rockman CB2, Gianos E3, Guo Y4, Berger JS5.

107) "Primary and secondary prevention of colorectal cancer."; Clin Med Insights Gastroenterol. 2014 Jul 14;7:33-46. doi: 10.4137/CGast.S14039. eCollection 2014.; Tárraga López PJ1, Albero JS2, Rodríguez-Montes JA3.

108) "Nut consumption and 5-y all-cause mortality in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project."

Nutrition. 2014 Sep;30(9):1022-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.02.018. Epub 2014 Mar 12.; Fernández-Montero A1, Bes-Rastrollo M2, Barrio-López MT3, Fuente-Arrillaga Cde L2, Salas-Salvadó J4,Moreno-Galarraga L5, Martínez-González MA2.

109) "Association of nut consumption with total and cause-specific mortality."; N Engl J Med. 2013 Nov 21;369(21):2001-11. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1307352.; Bao Y1, Han J, Hu FB, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Fuchs CS.

110) "Prospective study of nut consumption, long-term weight change, and obesity risk in women."; Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun;89(6):1913-9. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27276. Epub 2009 Apr 29.; Bes-Rastrollo M1, Wedick NM, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Li TY, Sampson L, Hu FB.

111) "Effects of walnuts on endothelial function in overweight adults with visceral obesity: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial."; J Am Coll Nutr. 2012 Dec;31(6):415-23.; Katz DL1, Davidhi A, Ma Y, Kavak Y, Bifulco L, Njike VY.

112) "Appetitive, dietary and health effects of almonds consumed with meals or as snacks: a randomized, controlled trial."; Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov;67(11):1205-14. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.184. Epub 2013 Oct 2.; Tan SY1, Mattes RD.

113) "Effects of pistachios on body weight in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome."; Nutr J. 2012 Apr 3;11:20. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-20.; Wang X1, Li Z, Liu Y, Lv X, Yang W.

114) "The effect of the addition of daily fruit and nut bars to diet on weight, and cardiac risk profile, in overweight adults."; J Hum Nutr Diet. 2011 Dec;24(6):543-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-277X.2011.01201.x. Epub 2011 Sep 2.; Davidi A1, Reynolds J, Njike VY, Ma Y, Doughty K, Katz DL."

115) "Nuts improve diet quality compared to other energy-dense snacks while maintaining body weight."

J Nutr Metab. 2011;2011:357350. doi: 10.1155/2011/357350. Epub 2011 Aug 10.; Tey SL1, Brown R, Gray A, Chisholm A, Delahunty C.

116) "A review of the evidence: nuts and body weight."; Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):588-97; Natoli S1, McCoy P.

117) Fox new article regarding Michael Phelps 12,000 Calories daily:​

118) A calculator with the Hans-Benedict equation:

References for caloric density figures

(often calculated from other figures or units changed)

1)  The general mills nutrition facts site:

2)  "The Pritikin Principle: The Calorie Density Solution" June 1, 2000; Robert Pritikin

3)  nutrition data;






10) Quizno's nutrition facts PDF


12)  "Ozeri Calorie Guide and U.S. Postal First Class Letter Rate Guide"; ozeri; 2013


14) The slim fast website: